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Voice over IP
Dictionary

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10BASE-2- The IEEE standard for a 10 Mbps, baseband network on thin coaxial cable.

10BASE-5- The IEEE standard for a 10 Mbps, baseband network on thin coaxial cable.

10BASE-F- The IEEE standard for 10 Mbps, baseband network on fiber-optic cable.

10BASE-FL (fiber link)- A subcategory of the 10BASE-F standard for interconnecting hubs, workstations and repeaters.

10BASE-FB (fiber backbone)- A subcategory of the 10BASE-F standard for interconnecting Ethernet repeaters.

10BASE-FP (fiber passive)- A subcategory of the 10BASE-F standard for interconnecting a specialized passive fiber-optic hub.

100BASE-T- The IEEE standard for a 10 Mbps, baseband network on unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) wiring.

100BASE-X- A 100BASE-T Physical-layer protocol family. It includes a twisted-pair protocol, 100BASE-TX, and the fiber protocol 100BASE-FX.

100VG-AnyLAN- The IEEE 802.12 standard for a 100-Mbps network based on the Demand Priority Access Method (DPAM).

802.2- See Logical Link Control (LLC).

802.3- See Ethernet.

802.3u- See 100BASE-T.

802.4- See token bus.

802.5- See token ring .

802.6- See Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB).

802.12- See Demand Priority Access Method (DPAM).

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A

Access Control- A field in a token-ring and FDDI frame that determines whether a ring station may use the token to begin transmitting data frames.

active monitor- A special token ring station which monitors ring activity by evaluating all passing frames.

address field- The beginning of a message in which the address of the originating station or the intended receiving station is contained.

administrator- A network user who can access commands that set up, configure, and manage the network.

agent software- A type of SNMP software which resides in a managed device (network element).

American National Standards Institution (ANSI)- A U.S. standards setting body. ANSI is a member of the International Standards Organization (ISO).

analog- Continuous signals formed from physical variables such as voltage, current, or resistance.

AppleTalk- Apple Computer's proprietary network protocol suite

application- A program used for a particular kind of work, such as word processing or database management.

active monitor- A special token ring station which monitors ring activity by evaluating all passing frames.

address field- The beginning of a message in which the address of the originating station or the intended receiving station is contained.

administrator- A network user who can access commands that set up, configure, and manage the network.

agent software- A type of SNMP software which resides in a managed device (network element).

American National Standards Institution (ANSI)- A U.S. standards setting body. ANSI is a member of the International Standards Organization (ISO).

analog- Continuous signals formed from physical variables such as voltage, current, or resistance.

AppleTalk- Apple Computer's proprietary network protocol suite

application- A program used for a particular kind of work, such as word processing or database management.

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B

backbone- A cable which carries packets between relatively remote devices, such as between two hubs on opposite sides of a building. See also collapsed backbone .

backplane- The common data bus in a router or hub.

bandwidth- The range of frequencies assigned to a communications channel.

baseband- A transmission scheme in which the entire bandwidth or data-carrying capacity of a coaxial cable is used to carry a digital signal between users. Because the digital signal is not modulated, only one kind of data can be transmitted. Ethernet is a baseband LAN technology.

beacon process- In FDDI and token ring LANs, the process of identifying the fault domain of a serious network problem.

bit rate- The speed at which bits are transmitted, usually expressed in bits per second.

bit time- The expected time it takes to transmit one bit at a given frequency.

BNC- A twist-on Tee connector used with thin Ethernet cable. BNC stands for Bayone-Neill-Concelman. It is sometimes referred to as a bayonet connector. See also 10BASE-2.

bps- Acronym for "bits per second." which defines the bit rate, or number of bits passing a point each second.

bridge- A combination of hardware and software that connects two LANs and allows communication between the nodes on each. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI Reference Model. bridge/router- A device that can operate as a pure bridge, a pure router, or both concurrently. It's also called a brouter.

broadband- The use of coaxial cable to provide data transfer using analog (radio-frequency) signals. Digital signals must be passed through a modem and transmitted over one of the frequency bands of the cable. Multiple channels carry data on a single physical cable. Cable TV is an example of broadband transmission.

Broadband ISDN (BISDN)- The second generation of ISDN that provides faster transmission rates than ISDN.

broadcast- Information sent to all nodes on the network at the same time.

brouter- See bridge/router .

buffer- A temporary storage area for data that serves as an intermediary to match impedance or time delays during data transmission.

bus topology- 1. A physical topology in which all servers and stations are connected to the same cable. 2. A logical topology in which packets are distributed to all nodes at the same time. See also logical topology , network topology , physical topology , ring topology , and star topology .

byte- An 8-bit sequence treated as a unit.

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C

cabling plant- The data and phone cabling installed in a building.

carrier- A continuous light wave or radio frequency that is transmitted over a cable and is modulated with a signal

carrier detect- The CSMA/CD function that senses the presence or absence of a signal (carrier) on the transmission medium.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)- A communication medium access technique allowing many separate transceivers to share a single channel. All units monitor the channel (carrier sense) and do not transmit while receiving a signal. Whenever the channel is idle, any unit can transmit (multiple access). If two or more units begin transmitting at the same time, their signals collide and they realize that a problem occurred (collision detection). They stop transmitting and then wait for a separate randomly determined short time before trying to retransmit the data. See also token passing .

central processing unit (CPU)- The circuit board or chip that controls all activity within a computer system-retrieving information, acting on it, and then sending it somewhere else.

CEPT- The abbreviation for the Conference of European Postal and Telecommunication Administration.

circuit- A path for communication between points; a communication link.

circuit switching- A switching technique in a data network where a fixed data path is dedicated to the two interconnected devices for the duration of the connection.

collapsed backbone- A network topology in which the backplane of a router or hub is used as the central high-speed interconnection for several LAN segments.

client- A node on a network that requests services from a server.

client-server application- A software architecture in which the userinterface processing resides on a network workstation (the client), and the majority of the data manipulation resides on a separate machine (the server).

client-server architecture- A LAN architecture in which network resources are centralized and controlled at one or more servers. Individual stations (clients) must request services through the server(s).

cluster controller- See control unit .

coaxial cable- A cable consisting of a small conducting wire enclosed in a large insulated conductor, shielded on the outside by a wire braid. It is also known as coax.

collision- The condition in which two packets are being transmitted over a medium at the same time. Their interference makes both unintelligible.

common management information protocol (CMIP)- The OSI protocol for network management.

communication medium- The physical link that carries information from one computer or peripheral to another. Typically a cable.

concentrator- See hub .

Conference European des Postes et des Telecommunications

(CEPT)- European standards organization involved with wireless LAN standards

configuration- 1. The total combination of hardware components (CPU, keyboard, display device, and others) that make up a computer system. 2. The software settings that allow different hardware components of a computer system to communicate with each other.

connection- In data communications terminology, a logical link established between application processes that allows them to exchange information.

connectionless- A type transmission which does not require that a connection be established prior to transmission. It does not provide errorchecking. LLC Type 1 service and UDP are connectionless services.

connectorized- Cable and outlets which use standard, modular connectors.

control unit- A hub-like device in an SNA network which supports connectivity of peripheral devices such as terminals. PCs, printers, and token ring networks. Also known as a cluster controller. See also cluster controller .

cross-connect- A device for the interconnection of cables. See patch panel and punch-down block .

crosstalk- A noise or signal distortion caused by inductive interference between adjacent cables.

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cyclic redundancy check (CRC)- An error detection scheme in which the check character for a block of data is generated by dividing all the serialized bits in the block by a predetermined binary number and taking the remainder. The check character is then compared to the result for the same block to verify the current transmission.

 

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